For youth in the first stage of alcohol use (having access but not having yet used alcohol), preventive measures are used. Therefore, limiting access to alcohol or other drugs, addressing any risk factors of the youth or family, as well as optimal parental supervision and expression regarding expectations are often recommended. The approach to those who have experimented with alcohol should not be minimized by mental-health professionals, since infrequent use can progress to the more serious stages of alcohol use if not addressed. Therefore, professionals recommend that the youth be thoroughly educated about the effects and risks of alcohol, that fair but firm limits be set on the use of alcohol, and that the user be referred for brief counseling, a self-help group, and/or family support group. Teens who have progressed to the more advanced stages of alcoholism are typically treated intensively, using a combination of the medical, individual, and familial interventions already described.
Another neutralization technique involves addition of sodium carbonate (NaCO 3 ), sometimes called soda ash, into the water system. This should be injected ahead of the pressure tank, and may be mixed with chlorine solution if chlorination is also used. Keep in mind that soda ash adds sodium to your water. To prevent corrosion by creating protective films on plumbing components, chemicals such as polyphosphates and silicates may be injected into the plumbing system. Non-corroding plumbing materials, such as plastic or polyvinyl chloride (PVC) may be used if old pipes must be replaced.